Etiquetteer delivered these remarks at the 2013 Repeal Day Celebration at the Gibson House Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.
Among other things, the madness of Prohibition created a Culture of Alcohol Concealment, leading people to find ingenious ways to secrete liquor in their homes or on their persons. Images survive of hollow canes, fake books, and even shot vials concealed in high-heeled shoes so that people could travel with their tipple unrevealed. In the 21st century, already awash with alcohol, similar devices are used to get around outrageous liquor prices at sports and concert venues. These include hollow flip flops, a necktie flask, and even a â€świne rack,â€ť which is a sports bra with tubing.
Prohibition left a permanent mark on American manners, illustrated uncompromisingly in a little etiquette book called No Nice Girl Swears by Alice-Leone Moats, first published in 1933, the final year of Prohibition. The last chapter, headed “Our Plastered Friends,” begins “When our mothers came out, learning to handle a drunk was not an essential part of a debutante’s education. Now every girl has to be capable not only of shifting for herself, but, more often than not, of looking out for her escort as well.” Can you imagine?! This is not the way Best Society is supposed to conduct itself. But Miss Moats goes on to detail the ten different types of drunks and how to make the best of their bad situations (often using one’s mad money to abandon them and take a taxi home. Miss Moats paints a worst-case scenario from the beginning. “If you’re going out very often, you might as well be prepared to think quickly and be ready to exercise your ingenuity at any time. You may be called upon to do anything form catching the bottles that your escort, in his exuberance, may chance to throw, to burrowing in the sawdust for him.” (You must remember that often the floors of gin joints and other dives were sprinkled with sawdust.)
And going out was what people did. Prohibition saw entertaining at home decline (though of course it still went on) in favor of the jazzy rise of cafĂ© society. Willa Cather famously described the phenomenon in 1924, saying “Nobody stays at home any more.” And that meant men and women drinking together in public, whereas before Prohibition, saloons were for men only. At home, one was less likely to be entertained at a traditional seated dinner of several courses as at that brand-new gathering, the cocktail party. Ladies and gentlemen just standing around drinking liquor without a meal, or perhaps any food at all, being offered — revolutionary!
Miss Moats makes it sound easy: “Cocktail parties have become the line of least resistance in entertaining. They are convenient for the person who must get 50 or 60 people off the list of obligations and prefers to do it at one fell swoop, saving money at the same time. It certainly isn’t much trouble; all you need is a case of synthetic gin and a tin of anchovy paste. The greater the number of the guests, the smaller and more airless the room, the stronger the gin, the more successful the party. But if you give one, you must be prepared to have your friends on your hands until two in the morning, as they will invariably forget their dinner engagements and stay on until the last shakerful is emptied.”
One of the places they went in Boston was the famous Cocoanut Grove on Piedmont Street, which opened in October, 1927. But in spite of some shady connections, the Grove was on the up and up. They didn’t serve hard liquor, but would provide setups, trays of siphons and glasses, so you could discreetly add your own booze from your flask under the table. It was often better to bring your own to some places. In The Greeks Had a Word For Them, a gentleman at a speak asks “Well, what do you have that won’t kill us, blind us, or burn holes in our clothes?” The brutal Dinah Brand in Dashiell Hammett’s equally brutal Red Harvest said that someone’s liquor tasted like it was drained off a corpse. Other places would get around the law by serving booze in teacups.
Tolerance for drunken behavior became more accepted, too. Again, we hear from Miss Moats: “There was once a time when a man who got drunk in a lady’s drawing room was never invited to that house again. If he showed the same lack of control in another home, he ran the risk of having every door closed to him. Now a hostess who insists that all her guests remain sober would find that she was giving parties to a chosen few, and very dull ones at that. She takes it for granted that the majority of her guests will be wavering before the evening is over.” A Paul Cadmus painting of 1939, â€śSeeing the New Year In,â€ť shows just such an occasion, with drunken, careless intellectuals coming apart at the seams. Itâ€™s a mean and tawdry descent.
One of the most astonishing ways that Prohibition changed America was the sudden appearance and acceptance of young women drinking in public. And it was this that led Pauline Morton Sabin, an aristocratic heiress to the Morton Salt fortune, to begin to campaign for Repeal. She said “Girls of a generation ago would not have ventured into a saloon. Girls did not drink; it was not considered ‘nice.’ But today girls and boys drink, at parties and everywhere, then stop casually at a speakeasy on the way home.” And indeed, a Topeka police chief observed “The girls simply won’t go out with the boys who haven’t got flasks to offer.” But a girl still had to hang on to her reputation, as Miss Moats makes clear in No Nice Girl Swears. “A great many people have come to believe in the single moral standard, but few have been converted to a single drinking standard. A drunken woman is still looked upon with disgust and she is certainly more objectionable than a drunken man. Liquor generally hits her in one of three ways: she gets boisterous and wants to play games, or she gets maudlin, or, more often, she grows desperately amorous. Whatever the effect, she is dangerous.”
To which Etiquetteer can only conclude, “Hotcha!”